2 edition of Methods of evaluating the cracked state and strength of rocks in situ. found in the catalog.
Methods of evaluating the cracked state and strength of rocks in situ.
Mikhail MikhaЗђlovich Protod"iakonov
by Mines Branch, Dept. of Mines and Technical Surveys in Ottawa
Written in English
|LC Classifications||QE431.5 P713|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||30|
geomechanical characterization which refers to the assessment of the in-situ stress, elastic properties and rock strength of the rock helps to determine the seal integrity of the caprock and the storage capacity of the reservoir during and after injection of CO. 2. in underground formations. D Test Method for Determining In Situ Modulus of Deformation of Rock Using Diametrically Loaded mm (3-in.) Borehole Jack. D Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data. D Test Methods for Compressive Strength and Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core Specimens under Varying States of Stress and Temperatures.
Chapter 5 Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock Overview The purpose of this chapter is to identify, either by reference or explicitly herein, appropriate methods of soil and rock property assessment, and how to use that soil and rock property data to establish the final soil and rock parameters to be used for geotechnical design. Subsurface soil or rock properties are generally determined using one or more of the following methods: • in-situ testing during the field exploration program, • laboratory testing, and • back analysis based on site performance data. In-situ test methods are discussed in NYSDOT GDM Chapter 4. The two most common in-situ.
This test method establishes requirements and laboratory procedures for performing direct shear strength tests on rock specimens under a constant normal load. It includes procedures for both intact rock strength and sliding friction tests, which can be performed on specimens that are homogeneous, or have planes of weakness, including natural or artificial discontinuities. This test method was developed to provide a common method for determining all applicable toughness parameters from a single test. 2. Referenced Documents ASTM Standards: E 4 Practices for Force Veriﬁcation of Testing Machines2 E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials2 E 21 Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests.
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In the investigation of strength and deformability of fractured rock, the same field data from Sellafield site, as reported in Min and Jing (), were square DEM models of fracture systems were generated with side length of 2 m × 2 m, 5 m × 5 m, and 10 m × 10 m, respectively, as extracted from the center of an original parent model of fracture system, based on the same fracture Cited by: Abstract.
This chapter first briefly describes in situ rock stresses and the strategy for estimating them. Then the various methods for making preliminary estimation of in situ rock stresses are presented, including the World Stress Map, the empirical correlations between vertical and horizontal stresses and depth, and the different analytical models.
Figs. 4 and 5 show the curves of axial stresses versus axial strains for the rotated DEM models with 7 different confining pressures (), as functions of the 6 orientation angles of the models, curves were used to evaluate strength and elastic deformability behavior of the fractured rock models, after the models reached their peak by: The following equation is proposed for the in situ crushing strength of coal: (6) q u =R LM −, where q u is the in situ crushing strength of coal (MPa) and R LM is the lower mean of rebound values.
Cargill and Shakoor performed the Schmidt hammer (L type) tests on rock cores (NX) and derived following by: For excavations and mines located at great depth the state of stress might exceed the strength of the rock mass and thereby cause intact rock failure, and consequent collapse.
Knowledge of the in situ stresses also provides insight into crustal dynamics such as plate tectonics, earthquake prediction and seismic risk analyses. Bidgoli and Jing  used the discrete element method to study the e ect of groundwater on rock deformation and strength characteristics.
e results show that water has a greater in uence on the. the rock mass, it must be recognized that an in situ pre-existing state of stress already exists in the rock. 10 of 64 Erik Eberhardt – UBC Geological Engineering EOSC () In Situ Stress & Tectonics When considering the loading conditions imposed on the rock mass, it must be recognized that an in situ pre-existing state of stress.
On-site Evaluation of Concrete Strength. Concrete strength (compressive strength) is by far the most important property of concrete. It represents the mechanical characteristics of concrete; The 28 days compressive strength of concrete cylinders or cube samples has widely been accepted as the minimum specified concrete strength in most design codes (ACICSA A).
The strength theory of rock damage is established based on the Mori–Tanaka method in this paper, by introducing a density coefficient η for the non-uniform arrangement of pre-cracks, the.
STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF ROCKS AND ROCK MASSES 1. INTRODUCTION 2. TESTING OF INTACT ROCK FOR STRENGTH center under a state of stress Note that in general, the tensile strength measured using the indirect methods is less than that measured used a direct tension apparatus.
Shear Tests Direct simple, double or punch shear tests can be. At RQD ¼ 0, the recovered rock core sizes are less than 10 cm (relatively fragmented state), the rock mass strength characterization should ideally be captured using parameters considered in the. Empirical relations between rock strength and physical properties in sedimentary rocks Chandong Chang a,⁎, Mark D.
Zoback a,1, Abbas Khaksar b,2 a Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CAUSA b GeoMechanics International, Inc., Perth, WAAustralia Received 1 April ; received in revised form 27 November ; accepted 11 January We studied the elastic moduli, ductile creep behavior, and brittle strength of shale-gas reservoir rocks from Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, and FortSt.
John shale in a series of triaxial laboratory experiments. We found a strong correlation between the shale compositions, in particular, the volume of clay plus kerogen and intact rock strength, frictional strength, and viscoplastic creep.
This paper presents a probabilistic limit state framework for the evaluation of the base resistance of drilled shafts in soft rock. In situ load tests and the Griffith fracture theory are used to.
Many in situ testing methods have been proposed to evaluate damaged rock masses, such as ultrasonic wave testing, borehole camera/television, and micro-seismic monitoring. Current oil prices and global financial situations underline the need for the best engineering practices to recover remaining oil from unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs.
These hydrocarbon reservoirs are mostly situated in deep and overpressured formations, with high rock strength and integrity. Breakdown pressure of the rock is a function of their tensile strength and in situ stresses.
Conventional rock mechanics geomechanical characterization uses empirical methods (Marinos and Hoek, ; Zafirovski, et al., ) to estimate in situ rock mass strength and modulus.
Since rock fracture geometry and properties are a major component of rock mass behavior, it is at least theoretically possible to utilize these empirical rock. Table 4–3 Hardness and unconfined compressive strength of rock 4–5 materials Table 4–4 Dry density (unit weight) 4–6 qualitative methods and simple classification tests, or, if necessary, in the laboratory using standardized tests.
or jointed in situ rock, where particles retain their. Some typical values of compressive strength of some rocks R Menon, Dept of Civil Engg Shear Test • Gives the shear strength of rock as a function of confining pressure.
• In this test the specimen doesn‟t require perfect square or smooth ends. • Load is applied parallel to the axis of core. Many classiﬁcation and testing methods for shale, slaking rock, weak rock, and weathered rock have been developed.
However, few of these methods are suitable for ﬁeld use or are applicable to a wide range of material types. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of recent research and analysis evaluating classiﬁcation and.
Standard Test Method for Evaluation of the Durability of Rock for Erosion Control Using Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate: D / DM - 12() Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Durability of Rock for Erosion Control Under Freezing and Thawing Conditions: D / DM - 12().Engineering classification of complex jointed rock mass is influenced and controlled by many factors with random, nonlinear, and unascertained characteristics, which is an extremely complicated problem.
This paper introduces a comprehensive method to classify the rock mass with complex joints. Firstly, evaluation indexes are described by the interval number theory.The strength of jointed rock masses is notoriously difficult to assess.
Laboratory tests on core samples are not representative of a rock mass of significantly larger volume. On the other hand, in situ strength testing of the rock mass is seldom practically or economically feasible.